Volume 44 Issue 3
Jun.  2022
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Bao Y X,Sun J B,Li T,Liang C R,Zhan Y,Han J,Li Y S,Zhang J F. 2022. Characteristics of surface deformation field of Changning shale gas block in southern Sichuan basin with InSAR data. Acta Seismologica Sinica,44(3):427−451 doi: 10.11939/jass.20210064
Citation: Bao Y X,Sun J B,Li T,Liang C R,Zhan Y,Han J,Li Y S,Zhang J F. 2022. Characteristics of surface deformation field of Changning shale gas block in southern Sichuan basin with InSAR data. Acta Seismologica Sinica44(3):427−451 doi: 10.11939/jass.20210064

Characteristics of surface deformation field of Changning shale gas block in southern Sichuan basin with InSAR data

doi: 10.11939/jass.20210064
  • Received Date: 2021-04-29
  • Rev Recd Date: 2021-07-31
  • Available Online: 2022-04-29
  • Publish Date: 2022-06-27
  • In recent years, along with large-scale development of shale gas, the seismicity rate has increased dramatically, a series of microseismicity, felt earthquakes and even destructive earthquakes occurred in southern Sichuan basin, a relatively tectonic stable area. Some studies statistically infer whether these earthquakes were induced by industrial activities by using spatio-temporal correlations. This study, on the other hand, uses deformation measurements to analyze whether shale gas exploitation can produce detectable surface deformation, so as to analyze the relationship between deformation and shale gas exploitation, in an attempt to find an effective approach for shale gas exploitation monitoring. Long wavelength ALOS-2 satellite radar data has the potential for minimizing decorrelation effects of radar signals caused by vegetation, heavy water vapor and topographic relief in Sichuan basin. We used ALOS-2 InSAR data to measure surface deformation in Changning shale gas block in the past two or three years, found possible ground deformation caused by massive shale gas production and analyzed its basic characteristics. Meanwhile we also processed time-series of Sentinel-1 satellite radar data to measure the surface deformation during active periods of shale gas exploitation. Considering the errors and different observation geometries of the two datasets, the results from two databases are consistent in revealing the surface deformation. Furthermore, the meaured deformation field is in agreement with the spatial distribution of shale gas wells. Our observations show fast surface uplift during hydrofracture injection, also ground subsidence and horizontal motion in production period with fliud diffusion. We preliminarily reveal the non-steady deformation characteristics during shale gas production. Our study suggests that InSAR is an effective technique for shale gas production monitoring even in southern Sichuan basin where complex deformation occurs, and can provide insights supplementary for seismological observations.

     

  • loading
  • [1]
    Chen Z W,Song Y,Qing C,Yang Y,Xiang D G. 2019. A case study on casing deformation of horizontal well during hydraulic fracturing in Sichuan Changning[J]. Chinese Journal of Underground Space and Engineering,15(2):513–524 (in Chinese).
    [2]
    Dong D Z,Gao S K,Huang J L,Guan Q Z,Wang S F,Wang Y M. 2014. A discussion on the shale gas exploration & development prospect in the Sichuan basin[J]. Natural Gas Industry,34(12):1–15 (in Chinese).
    [3]
    National Earthquake Data Center. 2021. Official catalog of China channel network[EB/OL]. [2021-03-14]. https://data.earthquake.cn/datashare/report.shtml?PAGEID=earthquake_zhengshi (in Chinese).
    [4]
    Han H F,He Q Y,Wang L. 2017. The current situation of flowback technology and its further development research for shale-gas wells in Changning block[J]. Drilling &Production Technology,40(4):69–71 (in Chinese).
    [5]
    He D F,Lu R Q,Huang H Y,Wang X S,Jiang H,Zhang W K. 2019. Tectonic and geological background of the earthquake hazards in Changning shale gas development zone,Sichuan basin,SW China[J]. Petroleum Exploration and Development,46(5):993–1006 (in Chinese).
    [6]
    Pu B L,Jiang Y L,Wang Y,Bao S J,Liu X J. 2010. Reservoir-forming conditions and favorable exploration zones of shale gas in Lower Silurian Longmaxi formation of Sichuan basin[J]. Acta Petrolei Sinica,31(2):225–230 (in Chinese).
    [7]
    Ren Y,Qian B,Zhang J,Zhuo Z C,Qiao L. 2015. Practice and understanding of industrial fracturing for shale gas of Longmaxi formation in Changning region[J]. Oil Drilling &Production Technology,37(4):96–99 (in Chinese).
    [8]
    Ruan X,Cheng W Z,Zhang Y J,Li J,Chen Y. 2008. Research of the earthquakes induced by water injections in salt mines in Changning,Sichuan[J]. Earthquake Research in China,24(3):226–234 (in Chinese).
    [9]
    Sun G T,Zhang Y H,Wu H A. 2011. Review of atmospheric correction methods for interferometric synthetic aperture radar measurements[J]. Remote Sensing Information,(4):111–116 (in Chinese).
    [10]
    Wang N,Fu H Y,Li S,Xu F. 2017. Retrieving ionospheric TEC based on the split-spectrum method[J]. Journal of Terahertz Science and Electronic Information Technology,15(2):198–205 (in Chinese).
    [11]
    Yi G X,Long F,Liang M J,Zhao M,Wang S W,Gong Y,Qiao H Z,Su J R. 2019. Focal mechanism solutions and seismogenic structure of the 17 June 2019 MS6.0 Sichuan Changning earthquake sequence[J]. Chinese Journal of Geophysics,62(9):3432–3447 (in Chinese).
    [12]
    Zhang J,Kuang W H,Zhang X,Mo C K,Zhang D X. 2021. Global review of induced earthquakes in oil and gas production fields[J]. Reviews of Geophysics and Planetary Physics,52(3):239–265 (in Chinese).
    [13]
    Zhou H Y. 2018. Study on Atmospheric Delay Correction of InSAR Time Series to Detect Ground Subsidence in Mining Area[D]. Beijing: China University of Mining and Technology: 5–6 (in Chinese).
    [14]
    Zhu H,He C. 2014. Focal mechanism character of earthquake sequence induced by water injection:A case study of Changning sequence,Sichuan Province[J]. Earth Science:Journal of China University of Geosciences,39(12):1776–1782 (in Chinese). doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2014.161
    [15]
    Atkinson G M,Eaton D W,Ghofrani H,Walker D,Cheadle B,Schultz R,Shcherbakov R,Tiampo K,Gu J,Harrington R M,Liu Y J,van der Baan M,Kao H. 2016. Hydraulic fracturing and seismicity in the western Canada sedimentary basin[J]. Seismol Res Lett,87(3):631–647. doi: 10.1785/0220150263
    [16]
    Bao X W,Eaton D W. 2016. Fault activation by hydraulic fracturing in western Canada[J]. Science,354(6318):1406–1409. doi: 10.1126/science.aag2583
    [17]
    Barbour A J,Evans E L,Hickman S H,Eneva M. 2016. Subsidence rates at the southern Salton sea consistent with reservoir depletion[J]. J Geophys Res:Solid Earth,121(7):5308–5327. doi: 10.1002/2016JB012903
    [18]
    Bekaert D P S,Walters R J,Wright T J,Hooper A J,Parker D J. 2015. Statistical comparison of InSAR tropospheric correction techniques[J]. Remote Sens Environ,170:40–47. doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2015.08.035
    [19]
    Brcic R, Parizzi A, Eineder M, Bamler R, Meyer F. 2010. Estimation and compensation of ionospheric delay for SAR interferometry[C]//Proceedings of 2010 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium. Honolulu: IEEE: 2908–2911.
    [20]
    Burchfiel B C,Chen Z L,Liu Y,Royden L H. 1995. Tectonics of the Longmen shan and adjacent regions,central China[J]. Int Geol Rev,37(8):661–735. doi: 10.1080/00206819509465424
    [21]
    Comola F,Janna C,Lovison A,Minini M,Tamburini A,Teatini P. 2016. Efficient global optimization of reservoir geomechanical parameters based on synthetic aperture radar-derived ground displacements[J]. Geophysics,81(3):M23–M33. doi: 10.1190/geo2015-0402.1
    [22]
    Deng F H,Dixon T H,Xie S R. 2020. Surface deformation and induced seismicity due to fluid injection and oil and gas extraction in western Texas[J]. J Geophys Res:Solid Earth,125(5):e2019JB018962.
    [23]
    Deng K,Liu Y J,Harrington R M. 2016. Poroelastic stress triggering of the December 2013 Crooked Lake,Alberta,induced seismicity sequence[J]. Geophys Res Lett,43(16):8482–8491. doi: 10.1002/2016GL070421
    [24]
    Doin M P,Lasserre C,Peltzer G,Cavalié O,Doubre C. 2009. Corrections of stratified tropospheric delays in SAR interferometry:Validation with global atmospheric models[J]. J Appl Geophys,69(1):35–50. doi: 10.1016/j.jappgeo.2009.03.010
    [25]
    Ebmeier S K, Biggs J, Mather T A, Amelung F. 2013. Applicability of InSAR to tropical volcanoes: Insights from central America[J]. Geol Soc London Spec Publ, 380(1): 15–37.
    [26]
    Ferretti A,Prati C,Rocca F. 2000. Nonlinear subsidence rate estimation using permanent scatterers in differential SAR interferometry[J]. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens,38(5):2202–2212. doi: 10.1109/36.868878
    [27]
    Ferretti A,Prati C,Rocca F. 2001. Permanent scatterers in SAR interferometry[J]. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens,39(1):8–20. doi: 10.1109/36.898661
    [28]
    GCMT. 2021. Global CMT catalog search[EB/OL]. [2021-03-23]. https://www.globalcmt.org/CMTsearch.html.
    [29]
    Goebel T H W,Brodsky E E. 2018. The spatial footprint of injection wells in a global compilation of induced earthquake sequences[J]. Science,361(6405):899–904. doi: 10.1126/science.aat5449
    [30]
    Gomba G,Parizzi A,de Zan F,Eineder M,Bamler R. 2016. Toward operational compensation of ionospheric effects in SAR interferograms:The split-spectrum method[J]. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens,54(3):1446–1461. doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2015.2481079
    [31]
    Hanssen R F. 2001. Radar Interferometry: Data Interpretation and Error Analysis[M]. Dordrecht: Springer: 66–69.
    [32]
    Hooper A,Zebker H,Segall P,Kampes B. 2004. A new method for measuring deformation on volcanoes and other natural terrains using InSAR persistent scatterers[J]. Geophys Res Lett,31(23):L23611.
    [33]
    Hooper A,Segall P,Zebker H. 2007. Persistent scatterer interferometric synthetic aperture radar for crustal deformation analysis,with application to Volcán Alcedo,Galápagos[J]. J Geophys Res:Solid Earth,112(B7):B07407.
    [34]
    Hu Z B,Mallorquí J J. 2019. An accurate method to correct atmospheric phase delay for InSAR with the ERA5 global atmospheric model[J]. Remote Sens,11(17):1969. doi: 10.3390/rs11171969
    [35]
    Jackson R B,Vengosh A,Carey J W,Davies R J,Darrah T H,O’sullivan F,Pétron G. 2014. The environmental costs and benefits of fracking[J]. Annu Rev Environ Resour,39:327–362. doi: 10.1146/annurev-environ-031113-144051
    [36]
    Jiang S,Peng Y M,Gao B,Zhang J C,Cai D S,Xue G,Bao S J,Xu Z Y,Tang X L,Dahdah N. 2016. Geology and shale gas resource potentials in the Sichuan basin,China[J]. Energy Explor Exploit,34(5):689–710. doi: 10.1177/0144598716657442
    [37]
    Jordan C,Bateson L,Novellino A. 2019. Environmental baseline monitoring for shale-gas development:Insights for monitoring ground motion using InSAR analysis[J]. Sci Total Environ,696:134075. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134075
    [38]
    Keranen K M,Weingarten M. 2018. Induced seismicity[J]. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci,46:149–174. doi: 10.1146/annurev-earth-082517-010054
    [39]
    Kubanek J, Liu Y J, Harrington R M, Samsonov S. 2018. Observation of surface deformation associated with hydraulic fracturing in western Canada using InSAR[C]//Proceedings of the EUSAR 2018; 12th European Conference on Synthetic Aperture Radar. Aachen: IEEE: 1–6.
    [40]
    Lei X L,Wang Z W,Su J R. 2019a. Possible link between long-term and short-term water injections and earthquakes in salt mine and shale gas site in Changning,south Sichuan basin,China[J]. Earth Planet Phys,3(6):510–525. doi: 10.26464/epp2019052
    [41]
    Lei X L,Wang Z W,Su J R. 2019b. The December 2018 ML5.7 and January 2019 ML5.3 earthquakes in south Sichuan basin induced by shale gas hydraulic fracturing[J]. Seismol Res Lett,90(3):1099–1110. doi: 10.1785/0220190029
    [42]
    Lei X L,Su J R,Wang Z W. 2020. Growing seismicity in the Sichuan basin and its association with industrial activities[J]. Science China Earth Science,63(11):1633–21660. doi: 10.1007/s11430-020-9646-x
    [43]
    Lei X L,Yu G Z,Ma S L,Wen X Z,Wang Q. 2008. Earthquakes induced by water injection at ~3 km depth within the Rongchang gas field,Chongqing,China[J]. J Geophys Res:Solid Earth,113(B10):B10310. doi: 10.1029/2008JB005604
    [44]
    Lei X L,Ma S L,Chen W K,Pang C M,Zeng J,Jiang B. 2013. A detailed view of the injection-induced seismicity in a natural gas reservoir in Zigong,southwestern Sichuan basin,China[J]. J Geophys Res:Solid Earth,118(8):4296–4311. doi: 10.1002/jgrb.50310
    [45]
    Lei X L,Huang D J,Su J R,Jiang G M,Wang X L,Wang H,Guo X,Fu H. 2017. Fault reactivation and earthquakes with magnitudes of up to MW4.7 induced by shale-gas hydraulic fracturing in Sichuan basin,China[J]. Sci Rep,7(1):7971. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-08557-y
    [46]
    Li T,Sun J B,Bao Y X,Zhan Y,Shen Z K,Xu X W,Lasserre C. 2021. The 2019 MW5.8 Changning,China earthquake:A cascade rupture of fold-accommodation faults induced by fluid injection[J]. Tectonophysics,801:228721. doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2021.228721
    [47]
    Liang C R,Fielding E J. 2017. Measuring azimuth deformation with L-band ALOS-2 ScanSAR interferometry[J]. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens,55(5):2725–2738. doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2017.2653186
    [48]
    Liang C R,Liu Z,Fielding E J,Bürgmann R. 2018. InSAR time series analysis of L-band wide-swath SAR data acquired by ALOS-2[J]. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens,56(8):4492–4506. doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2018.2821150
    [49]
    Liu J Q,Zahradník J. 2020. The 2019 MW5.7 Changning earthquake,Sichuan basin,China:A shallow doublet with different faulting styles[J]. Geophys Res Lett,47(4):e2019GL085408.
    [50]
    Lohman R B,Simons M. 2005. Some thoughts on the use of InSAR data to constrain models of surface deformation:Noise structure and data downsampling[J]. Geochem Geophys Geosyst,6(1):Q01007.
    [51]
    Meng L Y,McGarr A,Zhou L Q,Zang Y. 2019. An investigation of seismicity induced by hydraulic fracturing in the Sichuan basin of China based on data from a temporary seismic network[J]. Bull Seismol Soc Am,109(1):348–357. doi: 10.1785/0120180310
    [52]
    Norris J Q,Turcotte D L,Moores E M,Brodsky E E,Rundle J B. 2016. Fracking in tight shales:What is it,what does it accomplish,and what are its consequences?[J]. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci,44:321–351. doi: 10.1146/annurev-earth-060115-012537
    [53]
    Parker A L,Biggs J,Walters R J,Ebmeier S K,Wright T J,Teanby N A,Lu Z. 2015. Systematic assessment of atmospheric uncertainties for InSAR data at volcanic arcs using large-scale atmospheric models:Application to the Cascade volcanoes,United States[J]. Remote Sens Environ,170:102–114. doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2015.09.003
    [54]
    Rosen P A, Hensley S, Chen C. 2010. Measurement and mitigation of the ionosphere in L-band interferometric SAR data[C]//Proceedings of 2010 IEEE Radar Conference. Arlington: IEEE: 1459−1463.
    [55]
    Sandwell D T,Myer D,Mellors R,Shimada M,Brooks B,Foster J. 2008. Accuracy and resolution of ALOS interferometry:Vector deformation maps of the Father’s day intrusion at Kilauea[J]. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens,46(11):3524–3534. doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2008.2000634
    [56]
    Schultz R,Wang R J,Gu Y J,Haug K,Atkinson G. 2017. A seismological overview of the induced earthquakes in the Duvernay play near Fox Creek,Alberta[J]. J Geophys Res:Solid Earth,122(1):492–505. doi: 10.1002/2016JB013570
    [57]
    Schultz R,Skoumal R J,Brudzinski M R,Eaton D,Baptie B,Ellsworth W. 2020. Hydraulic fracturing‐induced seismicity[J]. Rev Geophys,58(3):e2019RG000695.
    [58]
    Shen Z K,Sun J B,Zhang P Z,Wan Y G,Wang M,Bürgmann R,Zeng Y H,Gan W J,Liao H,Wang Q L. 2009. Slip maxima at fault junctions and rupturing of barriers during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake[J]. Nat Geosci,2(10):718–724. doi: 10.1038/ngeo636
    [59]
    Shirzaei M,Manga M,Zhai G. 2019. Hydraulic properties of injection formations constrained by surface deformation[J]. Earth Planet Sci Lett,515:125–134. doi: 10.1016/j.jpgl.2019.03.025
    [60]
    Sun X L,Yang P T,Zhang Z W. 2017. A study of earthquakes induced by water injection in the Changning salt mine area,SW China[J]. J Asian Earth Sci,136:102–109. doi: 10.1016/j.jseaes.2017.01.030
    [61]
    Tan Y Y,Hu J,Zhang H J,Chen Y K,Qian J W,Wang Q F,Zha H S,Tang P,Nie Z. 2020. Hydraulic fracturing induced seismicity in the southern Sichuan basin due to fluid diffusion inferred from seismic and injection data analysis[J]. Geophys Res Lett,47(4):e2019GL084885.
    [62]
    Tian Y T,Kohn B P,Qiu N S,Yuan Y S,Hu S B,Gleadow A J W,Zhang P Z. 2018. Eocene to Miocene out-of-sequence deformation in the eastern Tibetan Plateau:Insights from shortening structures in the Sichuan basin[J]. J Geophys Res:Solid Earth,123(2):1840–1855. doi: 10.1002/2017JB015049
    [63]
    Vasco D W,Rucci A,Ferretti A,Novali F,Bissell R C,Ringrose P S,Mathieson A S,Wright I W. 2010. Satellite-based measurements of surface deformation reveal fluid flow associated with the geological storage of carbon dioxide[J]. Geophys Res Lett,37(3):L03303.
    [64]
    Wang E,Meng K,Su Z,Meng Q R,Chu J J,Chen Z L,Wang G,Shi X H,Liang X Q. 2014. Block rotation:Tectonic response of the Sichuan basin to the southeastward growth of the Tibetan Plateau along the Xianshuihe‐Xiaojiang fault[J]. Tectonics,33(5):686–718. doi: 10.1002/2013TC003337
    [65]
    Wang M,Shen Z K. 2020. Present‐day crustal deformation of continental China derived from GPS and its tectonic implications[J]. J Geophys Res:Solid Earth,125(2):e2019JB018774.
    [66]
    Wang S,Jiang G Y,Weingarten M,Niu Y F. 2020. InSAR evidence indicates a link between fluid injection for salt mining and the 2019 Changning (China) earthquake sequence[J]. Geophys Res Lett,46:e2020GL087603.
    [67]
    Xu G Q,Kamp P J J. 2000. Tectonics and denudation adjacent to the Xianshuihe fault,eastern Tibetan Plateau:Constraints from fission track thermochronology[J]. J Geophys Res:Solid Earth,105(B8):19231–19251. doi: 10.1029/2000JB900159
    [68]
    Yang Z,Shen C B,Ratschbacher L,Enkelmann E,Jonckheere R,Wauschkuhn B,Dong Y P. 2017. Sichuan basin and beyond:Eastward foreland growth of the Tibetan Plateau from an integration of Late Cretaceous‐Cenozoic fission track and (U‐Th)/He ages of the eastern Tibetan Plateau,Qinling,and Daba Shan[J]. J Geophys Res:Solid Earth,122(6):4712–4740. doi: 10.1002/2016JB013751
    [69]
    Zebker H A,Villasenor J. 1992. Decorrelation in interferometric radar echoes[J]. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens,30(5):950–959. doi: 10.1109/36.175330
    [70]
    Zebker H A,Rosen P A,Hensley S. 1997. Atmospheric effects in interferometric synthetic aperture radar surface deformation and topographic maps[J]. J Geophys Res:Solid Earth,102(B4):7547–7563. doi: 10.1029/96JB03804
    [71]
    Zeng X F,Han L B,Shi Y L. 2014. The April 24,2013 Changning MS4.8 earthquake:A felt earthquake that occurred in Paleozoic sediment[J]. Earthquake Science,27(1):107–115. doi: 10.1007/s11589-014-0062-3
    [72]
    Zhang B C, Ding X L, Zhu W. 2018. An asymmetric split-spectrum method for estimating the ionospheric artifacts in InSAR data[C]//Proceedings of IGARSS 2018−2018 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium. Valencia: IEEE: 517–520.
    [73]
    Zhang Y P,Person M,Rupp J,Ellett K,Celia M A,Gable C W,Bowen B,Evans J,Bandilla K,Mozley P,Dewers T,Elliot T. 2013. Hydrogeologic controls on induced seismicity in crystalline basement rocks due to fluid injection into basal reservoirs[J]. Groundwater,51(4):525–538. doi: 10.1111/gwat.12071
  • 加载中

Catalog

    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(10)  / Tables(1)

    Article Metrics

    Article views (236) PDF downloads(102) Cited by()
    Proportional views
    Related

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return