Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
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Forward modeling method of seismic multiple scattering wave
Zhang Bo, Wu Guochen, Li Qingyang, Yang Lingyun, Shan Junzhen
 doi: 10.11939/jass.20210053
[Abstract](0) [FullText HTML](0) [PDF 0KB](0)
When seismic waves pass through the underground scatterers, multistage scattered waves will be generated, and the analysis of their seismic response characteristics is beneficial to infer the distribution and properties of the scatterers. Based on the two-dimensional scalar wave equation, combined with the seismic scattering theory and the Born approximation theory, the multistage scattering wave equation is deduced. The numerical simulation of the two-point scatterer model and the complex scatterer model is carried out by using the high-order finite difference method, and the propagation law and wavefield characteristics of the multistage scattered wave are analyzed. The single track records of multistage scattering and each scattering are extracted and compared with the reference single track records, which verifies the accuracy of the scattering wave equation derived in this paper.
Paleoearthquakes and the latest active age of Jinghe segment of Bolokenu-Aqikekuduk fault
Yang Panxin, Hu Weihua, Hu Chaozhong, Sun Xinzhe, Huang Shuaitang, Guo Chunshan, Chen Zhihua, Ren Jinwei
 doi: 10.11939/jass.20210040
[Abstract](0) [FullText HTML](0) [PDF 0KB](0)
the Bolokenu-Aqikekuduk fault is located at the northernmost end of the NW-trending dextral strike-slip fault system in the west Tianshan mountain, and is also the longest active fault extending in China. The activity rate of the fault has been studied by predecessors. In this paper, two trenches were excavated on the latest surface deformation in the west of Aibi lake and southeast of Jinghe county. According to activity difference, the fault can be divided into the Aibi lake segment and the east Jinghe segment. The results show that the latest active times of the two sections are determined to be Holocene, and the latest earthquake events occurred 2 ka ago and before 3.7 ka, According to the results of gully dislocation and pluvial fan dating, the activity rate in the east Jinghe section is more than 4 mm/a. Furthermore, it is deduced that the Aibi Lake segment may be the seismogenic structure of Jinghe MS61/2 in 1765, and its magnitude is likely to be underestimated. According to the rupture length about 60 km, the magnitude is likely to be more than M7.0.
Effect of fluvial sedimentary soil layer structure on the soil liquefaction
Wang Wei, Qi Yakun, Wang Haoyu, Li Jinyu, Zhang Xiaoqing, Shen Chao, Feng Weidong
 doi: 10.11939/jass.20210175
[Abstract](0) [FullText HTML](0) [PDF 7187KB](0)
The distribution characteristics of liquefaction sites play an important role in the earthquake geological disaster prevention for the construction project. By analyzing the distribution of the sites of the soil liquefaction manifestation caused in Songyuan MS5.7 earthquake on the 28, May, 2008 and the 2010−2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence, it is discovered that most of the sites are located on the inside bend of the meandering river. The typical binary structure exists in the point bar formed by the lateral erosion of the outside bend and the deposition of the inside bend. The impermeable (including weakly permeable) clay layer is covered on top of the saturated fine sand, which is easy to cause the accumulation of the excess pore pressure. The discontinuous distribution of the impermeable clay layer is obvious in the braided fluvial facies. The simplified model is built for soil layer structures of the different fluvial facies. The FLAC3D software is used to study the mechanism of the accumulation and dissipation of the pore pressure, and the seepage flow process. The structure of the soil layer formed by the fluvial deposition is highly affected the distribution of soil liquefaction manifestation and the ground surface deformation. By far, the soil liquefaction potential is evaluated with the in-situ test data of one single borehole, however, the real three-dimensional structure of the engineering site is very complex. It is necessary to access the soil layer structure using the reasonable engineering geological zoning and exploration methods. It is important to furtherly study the effect of the soil layer structure on the liquefaction potential evaluation.
Relocation and seismogenic structure analysis of the MS5.5 Ninglang,earthquake sequence on January 2,2022
Wang Guangming, Wu Zhonghai, Liu Changwei, Zhang Tianyu, Peng Guanling
 doi: 10.11939/jass.20220017
[Abstract](0) [FullText HTML](0) [PDF 0KB](0)
On January 2, 2022, an MS5.5 earthquake occurred in the Ninglang county, Lijiang city, Yunnan Province. This earthquake is another MS≥5.0 event that occurred in Yongning basin after the MS5.7 Ninglang−Yanyuan earthquake on June 24, 2012. Yongning Basin is located in the Sichuan−Yunnan block, so the study of the seismogenic structures and characteristics of these two earthquakes is helpful to better understand the genesis mechanism of moderate strong earthquakes in the block. Using the P and S phase arrival data provided by the Seismic Cataloging System, the MS5.5 Ninglang earthquake sequence is relocated with double-difference relocation algorithm, and the relative locations of 694 earthquakes with high accuracy are obtained. In general, the relocations reveal a 11 km-long, linear NNE−NS seismicity trend concentrated in the 4—11 km depth range. This trend is aligned along the NNE nodal plane of the mainshock focal mechanism. The mainshock is located in the southern section of the earthquake sequence. The earthquake sequence shows two groups of active branches with different inclinations in depth profile, and the eastern branch is consistent with the dip angle of focal mechanism nodal plane Ⅱ(81°). In addition, the earthquake may have triggered localized faulting in the neighboring area. According to comprehensive analysis, the seismogenic fault of the MS5.5 Ninglang earthquake sequence should be a NNE−NS trending left-lateral strike-slip fault, with normal component, the fault plane dips to the WNW at 81° angle. The active properties of the fault are not completely consistent with any mapped faults in this area. While the MS5.5 Ninglang earthquake sequence is located to the north of the MS5.7 Ninglang−Yanyuan earthquake sequence in 2012, they have different seismogenic structures. The result of Coulomb failure stress shows that the MS5.7 Ninglang−Yanyuan earthquake in 2012 has a positive effect on the MS5.5 Ninglang earthquake.
Research on the results of national public survey on the status of earthquake disaster mitigation services and the demand for earthquake early warning in 2020
Lian Weiping, Li Yumei, Liu Peixuan, Zhu Lin
 doi: 10.11939/jass.20210101
[Abstract](20) [FullText HTML](6) [PDF 1497KB](3)
Earthquake information services require in-depth research on the public reach and feedback. Research on the public earthquake early warning needs and the acceptance of false alarms has recently become sincerely necessary for the earthquake early warning system is about to provide services to the public on a large scale due to the advancement of the national earthquake early warning project. This paper designs a survey index system to quantify the public reach and satisfaction of earthquake disaster mitigation services and has achieved good results. The results of the nationwide public survey show that 80.7%, 56.2%, 29.5% and 26.7% of the public have contacted the four services including earthquake quick report service, earthquake knowledge popularization, earthquake resistance consulting service for self-built houses, and information portals of earthquake departments at all levels. The public contact of the services has obvious regional characteristics and group characteristics. The public satisfaction is generally high, but the timeliness satisfaction evaluation score the earthquake quick report service is relatively low. The public lacks an intuitive experience of its timeliness improvement in recent years. Research on the public demand of earthquake early warning shows that 88.3% of the public believe that it is necessary, 56.8% of the public have a strong demand for it, and the public acceptance of false alarms has remained at a high level in the past ten years. In large cities and the earthquake-prone areas, the public demand for earthquake early warning and the acceptance of false alarms are visibly higher than the overall nationwide level.
Numerical Simulation of Earthquake-induced loess Landslides Based on Particle Flow Method
Jia Weilong, Chang Chaoyu, Li Peiru, Zhang Zhiwei, Xu Jiuhuan, Yang Jiyuan
 doi: 10.11939/jass.20210035
[Abstract](8) [FullText HTML](6) [PDF 3485KB](1)
Research on the dynamic stability and sliding process of soil slopes based on particle flow theory is a new hot spot in landslide research in recent years. On the basis of field investigation and indoor experiment, through the process of calibrating soil parameters, model establishment, power input, dynamic monitoring, etc., the PFC2D program was used to simulate the instability of the Xiamadazi Landslide in Baowan Village, Xingping Township, Xiji County The failure movement process, the failure movement mechanism of the landslide is obtained. The following conclusions are obtained: 1 The instability mechanism of the Xiamadazi Landslide is the traction of the leading edge of the slope, pushing of the trailing edge, and tensile failure of the slope shoulder under the action of an earthquake. After the instability, the larger speed and displacement of the slope shoulder position is the earthquake landslide. The main reason for the strong destructive force and the large disaster area; 2 The back wall of the Earthquake-induced loess Landslides is relatively flat, which is one of the important characteristics different from gravity landslides; 3 The relative height difference and length before and after the landslide obtained by particle flow simulation It is more consistent with the actual situation. Therefore, the particle flow method can be used to predict the slip distance of earthquake landslides.
Joint inversion of the lithospheric structure of the central North China Craton from ambient noise and seismic surface wave
Huang Xiang, Ding Zhifeng, Ning Jieyuan, Xu Xiaoming
 doi: 10.11939/jass.20210042
[Abstract](19) [FullText HTML](2) [PDF 8458KB](11)
Based on the observation data of the ChinArray Phase Ⅲ deployed in the central North China Craton, the Rayleigh surface wave dispersion with period range of 6 s to 140 s in the study area is obtained using cross-correlation of ambient noise and seismic surface wave tomography. The high-resolution 3-D S-wave velocity structure of the lithosphere in the central North China Craton is further obtained with the Monte Carlo nonlinear inversion method. The results exhibit significant lateral differences in the lithospheric structure of different blocks of the North China Craton. The central part of the Ordos Basin is characterized by high velocity overall, extending below 200 km, but there is a small range of low-velocity anomalies on the southeast margin. The North China Basin in the east is characterized by low-velocity with thin crust and lithospheric thickness. Connected low-velocity zones at the northern and southern ends of the central orogenic belt and below the north-south gravity gradient line are observed, which extends below the North China Basin. In the lower crust and uppermost mantle, the low-velocity zone in the Datong volcanic group area gradually shifts westward to the northeast corner of the Ordos Basin. While in the upper mantle, the low-velocity anomalies in this area gradually fade off as the depth increased. And the low-velocity zone extended below the North China Basin in the southeast. Based on the S-wave velocity model obtained in this study, we believe that the heart of the Ordos Basin maintains the cratonic characteristics overall, but there is a local lithospheric modification at the southeast margin; the North China Basin has experienced strong lithospheric destruction and thinning and crustal extensional deformation; The lithosphere at the northern and southern ends of the central orogenic belt and the north-south gravity gradient line has undergone partial modification and thinning. The mechanism may be the same and due to the upwelling of hot material in the mantle below the North China Basin; The upwelling hot material below the Datong volcanic group intrudes into the lower crust below the northeast corner of the Ordos Basin. Then it is blocked by the upper crust when rising in the crust and flows eastward to the bottom of the Datong volcanic group, forming the magmatic activity of the Datong volcanic group. The deep source may be related to the stagnant Pacific slab.
Joint iterative inversion of tectonic stress field and fault identification in Yingjiang area
Feng Bing, Zhu Liangyu, Hui Hang, Wang Wenqing, Chai Xuchao, Ji Dongjiao
 doi: 10.11939/jass.20210027
[Abstract](29) [FullText HTML](37) [PDF 4736KB](5)
There has always been a problem in inversion of tectonic stress field by focal mechanism solution, it is impossible to determine which node is the correct seismogenic fault plane. The joint iterative stress inversion method can effectively avoid the error caused by incorrect fault selection by identifying the fault instability. In this paper, the focal mechanism solutions of 5 groups of earthquake sequences in Yingjiang and its adjacent areas are collected, and the tectonic stress field in this area is inversed. The results show that, in Yingjiang area, the main compressive stress is NNE, and the main tensile stress is SEE, which is basically consistent with the previous research results. However, the local stress field is not completely consistent. The strike of the principal stress axis along the Sudian fault extends from north to south, and the angle gradually shifts to the north. In the southwest of Yingjiang, the strike of the principal stress tends to the East, which may be related to the transverse extension of the Dayingjiang fault. In addition, the strike, dip angle, slip angle and friction coefficient of the main seismogenic fault nodes of the focal mechanism solutions of five groups of earthquake sequences are identified by stress field inversion. This provides a valuable reference for the future seismic research and crustal dynamic changes in this region.
High-resolution crustal structure in the Songliao basin
Kuang Chunli, Zhang Ruiqing, Chen Chenfeng, Liu Jiangdong
 doi: 10.11939/jass.20210108
[Abstract](254) [FullText HTML](42) [PDF 3643KB](64)
High-resolution shallow crustal structure beneath the Songliao basin of Northeast (NE) China has obvious economic and scientific significance. To constrain the sediment and crustal structure of the Songliao basin, H-β grid search method based on wavefield downward continuation and decomposition is used with teleseismic data recorded from portable broadband seismic arrays in the NE China. The results show that the estimated sediment thickness is 0.2−2.5 km, and becomes thinner from the central depression toward the margin of the basin, with the thinnest sediment in the southwestern region. The crustal thickness varies from 24 km to 34 km, and its lateral variation correlates with the distribution of sedimentary thicknesses to a certain extent. The crustal stretching factor is calculated from the sedimentary and crustal thicknesses, with an average close to the lithospheric stretching estimation from previous receiver function studies. Thus, we infer that the thinning of the crust and lithosphere is dominated by pure shear mode during the extensional process of the Songliao basin. Moreover, the Songliao basin has a high crustal vP/vS ratio, indicating possible magmatic underplating during the lithospheric extension beneath the Songliao basin.
Shallow velocity structure and seismogenic environment in the Zigui section of the Three Gorges Reservoir region of China
Hu Jintao, Xie Jun, Wei Zigen, Jin Chao
 doi: 10.11939/jass.20210194
[Abstract](64) [FullText HTML](21) [PDF 3065KB](29)
After the impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir in 2003, shallow earthquakes occurred frequently, which had a great impact on local productions and lives. The study of shallow velocity structure is of great significance for shallow seismic disaster assessment and disaster prevention and reduction in Zigui area. In this paper, based on the vertical component continuous waveform records of 24 mobile seismic stations in Zigui area from June to July of 2020, the empirical Green’s functions between stations are obtained by cross-correlating of the ambient seismic noise, the Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves of 0.6−5 s are extracted, and the inversion for the three-dimensional S-wave velocity model is obtained within 6 km near the surface of the region. The results show that the S-wave velocity of Zigui basin and its south adjacent area is significantly lower than that of the eastern fault area, which is consistent with the structural evolution and sedimentary characteristics of different structural blocks in the studied area; an earthquake with MS4.2 occurred on the vertical high-velocity and low-velocity junction area of the study area in 2014. The S-wave velocity decreases obviously near the Yangtze River region in the fault zone, indicating that the Yangtze River water penetrates into the fault area. Therefore, the frequent occurrence of earthquakes in Zigui area is related to the water load and water infiltration of the Three Gorges reservoir.
Seismic dislocation theory of spherical earth model and its application
Sun Wenke, Fu Guangyu, Zhou Xin, Xu Changyi, Tang He, Dong Jie, Zhou Jiangcun, Yang Junyan, Wang Wuxing, Liu Tai
 doi: 10.11939/jass.20210134
[Abstract](135) [FullText HTML](33) [PDF 1103KB](64)
Seismic dislocation theory is the theory of studying the relationship between seismic fault slip and geophysical field change, and also it is the link between the source mechanism, the internal structure of the Earth, earthquake forecasting and other basic geophysical problems and geodetic-geophysical observation. The widely used dislocation theory of the semi-infinite medium model, due to the limitation of its geometric attribute, will riskily result in a certain degree of oversight and even fault in the application of seismic deformation and geodynamics analysis. In addition, modern geodesy technology can accurately observe seismic deformation on global and regional scales, and a suitable seismic dislocation theory born for global seismic deformation study is urgently required. For this purpose, our team has developed a new system of seismic dislocation theory based on the spherical earth model through many years of systematic research. The establishment of such theory has promoted the study of global seismic deformation and geodynamic process, and expanded the study of earthquake-induced global geodynamic changes. This informative article briefly introduces the domestic development and application of seismic dislocation theory of spherical earth model. The first section introduces the dislocation theory of elastic spherical earth model, three-dimensional inhomogeneous earth model and viscoelastic earth model. The second section introduces the relevant applications of the dislocation theory of spherical earth model in geodynamic change, fault and underground structure inversion and others in seismological geodesy. The seismic dislocation theory of the spherical earth model has promoted the study of global seismic deformation and geodynamic changes. It is one of the important theoretical advances in the field of geophysics in recent years.
Applicability of the Next Generation Attenuation-West2 ground-motion model to the components of near-fault velocity pulse-like ground motions
Zhao Xiaofen, Wen Zengping, Xie Junju, Xie Quancai
 doi: 10.11939/jass.20210176
[Abstract](134) [FullText HTML](59) [PDF 9564KB](44)
The traditional ground-motion models (GMMs) do not account for pulse effects and may therefore fail to estimate seismic hazards and risk at near-fault sites, where pulse-like ground motions are expected. Thus, the applicability of the newest generation NGA-West2 GMMs to the near-fault velocity pulse-like ground motions need to be tested. The near-fault strong ground motions are quantitatively identified by considering the uncertainty of pulse orientation and using wavelet method from recent earthquake since 2013 to form a new pulse database. Based on the new pulse database, long-period pulses are extracted from the original pulse records by using wavelet method. Based on a quantitative analysis of the epsilon parameter, we quantitatively test the applicability of the NGA-West2 ground-motion model to the near-fault velocity pulse-like ground motions. The results show that the four NGA-West2 models are more suitable for describing the residual recordings at the studied period, but underestimate the pulse original ground motions especially around the pulse period. We noted that, during the four NGA-West2 models, the applicability of the CB2018 to the residual ground motions is the best. This study provides an excellent opportunity to quantitatively evaluate the NGA-West2 GMMs and to update these models in the near future, and also provides a basis for incorporating pulse effects into near-fault probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and seismic design.
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2022, 44(3).  
[Abstract](12) [PDF 1052KB](5)
Crustal thickness and Poisson’s ratio of orogenic belts in northern North China Craton using teleseismic receiver functions
Liu Jiadong, Ding Zhifeng, Wu Yan, Jiang Lei
2022, 44(3): 357-373.   doi: 10.11939/jass.20210001
[Abstract](129) [FullText HTML](87) [PDF 4171KB](55)
The thickness and Poisson’s ratio of crust of the North China Craton (NCC) are of great significance to the study of lithospheric evolution of the North China Craton. We collected receiver functions from 115 broadband seismic stations and six very broadband seismic stations on the Taihang-Yanshan orogenic belt and its adjacent areas in the northern North China Craton recorded from October 2006 to September 2009. First we used predictive deconvolution method to eliminate the influence of sedimentary on receiver function waveform. Then the effects of S wave azimuthal anisotropy and interfaces dipping were corrected by using H-κ-c stacking method. Finally, the thickness and Poisson’s ratio of research area were obtained. Our results are featured by lateral variation. The crust thickness in the research area is thick in the western block and thin in the eastern block, and is highly correlated to the topography, which is consistence with Airy isostasy. The low Poisson’s ratio of western block represent relative stability of the crust, the distribution of Poisson’s ratio in central orogenic belt and eastern block is inhomogeneous, suggests that the complex transformation process has been suffered in the crust. Combined with the previous research results, we speculate that there existed partial melting and mantle upwelling in the lower crust of Huailai-Yanqing basin and southern Tangshan, and lower crust detachment might have occurred on the north of Shijiazhuang, and the lower crust of Baoding-Fangshan may have been suffered mantle upwelling under the influence of extension after its detachment. The different crust structures of different areas result in the differences of crustal thickness and Poisson’s ratio distribution which are obtained by H-κ-c stacking as well as H-κ stacking.
Lithospheric velocity structure of Alaska revealed by double difference tomography
Zhou Shaoxian, Xue Mei
2022, 44(3): 374-387.   doi: 10.11939/jass.20210122
[Abstract](297) [FullText HTML](51) [PDF 40109KB](52)
Alaska region is formed by the northward accretions of terranes from different geological periods and has experienced extensive internal deformation and metamorphism, and the geological structure is complex. The Array Network Facility (ANF) website recently provides new observational data from the seismic network of USAarray, filling the observation gap in the west and north of Alaska. Based on P and S wave arrivals of 5 638 events recorded by 345 stations from ANF, this study relocates earthquakes and images the 3D lithospheric P-wave velocity structure beneath Alaska simultaneously by regional double difference tomography. The results reveal larger dip angle of subducting Pacific Plate and low-vP anomalies in the mantle wedge beneath western Alaska. These observations reflect the subduction process, during which the dehydration of the subduting Pacific Plate releases fluids into the mantle wedge, triggers partial melting, and generates melts, which was then transported to the surface by the upwelling flow so as to form Aleutian volcanic arc. In central Alaska, the coupling between the Yakutat terrane and the Pacific Plate reduces the subduction dip. On the one hand, the shallow subduction of the Yakutat terrane increases the compressive stress of the crust, causing the crustal thickening and uplifting of Chugach mountains. On the other hand, it cools the mantle wedge reducing magma generation, which are then combined with the closure of crust fractures resulted from the increase of the crustal stress, blocking the supply of melt to the surface, and finally leading to the formation of Denali volcanic gap. In addition, there is a clear boundary between Yakutat terrane and Wrangell volcanic field in the east, and the low velocity zone corresponding to magmatic activity in the region is concentrated in the northwest. The magma source may be related to upwelling of the toroidal mantle flow around the Pacific-Yakutat slab edge. These results suggest that the complex geodynamic processes in deep Alaska lead to the complex geological structure on the surface.
First arrival time picking algorithm of micro-seismic based on improved STA/LTA and adaptive VMD
Meng Juan, Wu Yanxiong, Li Yanan
2022, 44(3): 388-400.   doi: 10.11939/jass.20200199
[Abstract](101) [FullText HTML](67) [PDF 3313KB](39)
Accurate and reliable picking of the first arrival time is one of the critical steps in micro-seismic monitoring. Aiming at the problem of low accuracy of first arrival picking for micro-seisms under low signal-to-noise ratio, the traditional short term averaging/long term averaging algorithm is improved by introducing weight factor according to the change of signal amplitude to improve the accuracy of initial pickup. In order to further reduce the pickup error, variational mode decomposition (VMD) is optimized based on cross-correlation coefficient and permutation entropy criterion, and decomposition layers are determined adaptively. Then, the signals of 2−3 s before and after the initial pickup are decomposed by VMD, and the Kurtosis-Akaike information criterion (AIC) values of the decomposed intrinsic mode functions (IMF) are calculated to get the arrival time of each IMF, and the secondary arrival time is obtained by comprehensively weighting the picking results and energy ratios of each IMF. Simulation results show that the improved STA/LTA can reduce the initial picking error by more than 0.01 s at low SNR; compared with empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and wavelet packet decomposition, the adaptive VMD decomposition can reduce the picking error again, and the finalaverage picking error is less than 0.023 s. The first arrival time picking results of real micro-seismic signals show that the proposed algorithm can identify the first break of P-wave quickly and effectively, and the error is smaller than that of manual picking, which shows that the algorithm is effective and the picking accuracy is high.
Variation of b-value before and after Yangbi four MS≥5.0 earthquakes on May 21,2021
Zeng Xianwei, Zhao Xiaoyan, Li Mengya, Li Wenjun, Tang Hao, Yuan Yuan
2022, 44(3): 401-412.   doi: 10.11939/jass.20210129
[Abstract](133) [FullText HTML](80) [PDF 3134KB](70)
Four MS≥5.0 earthquakes occurred successively in Yunnan Yangbi from 21:21 to 22:31 on May 21, 2021, which are MS5.6, MS6.4, MS5.0 and MS5.2, respectively. Based on the earthquakes recorded in focal area of Yangbi earthquake and its vicinity from January 1, 2015 to June 4, 2021, we estimated the b-value by the maximum likelihood method. Then, we analyzed the spatial distribution of b-value before and after Yangbi earthquakes and got the views below. Firstly, an earthquake swarm occurred three days before the Yangbi earthquakes, then, the b-value near the focal area of Yangbi earthquake decreased rapidly after the earthquake swarm. It may indicate that the strength of crustal medium was close to the critical state of fracture. Secondly, the four MS≥5.0 earthquakes distribute along the edge of the abnormal area with low b-value. Thirdly, the b-value of the focal area increased obviously after the Yangbi earthquakes. It indicates that the regional stress has been released and the risk of strong earthquake is reduced in the short term. Fourthly, there are two b-value abnormal areas 40 km and 70 km northwest of the Yangbi earthquakes. It means that there is a risk of strong earthquakes in the abnormal areas in the future.
Modeling and applications on amplitude-magnitude-distance-depth of some teleseism and ultra-teleseism phases
Xue Fangzheng, Wang Hongchun, Zhu Haofeng, Xu Xiong
2022, 44(3): 413-426.   doi: 10.11939/jass.20210023
[Abstract](57) [FullText HTML](35) [PDF 3642KB](18)
The consistency analysis of the signal feature is an important method to estimate the relationship between the event and the signal in the detection of seismic event. The consistency of amplitude can be used for determination of association through the comparison of amplitude residuals with numerous signal features on time and frequency domain. Different phases comply with the different propagation and attenuation law of amplitude-distance-depth. In this paper, the distribution of sample size varying with the distance of teleseism and ultra-teleseism phases such as P, PcP, PKP, PKPab and PKPbc based on the IDC is made. The model of amplitude-magnitude- distance-depth is constructed by iterative regression based on the residual statistics. The model is estimated through the standard deviation and mean of residual of magnitude. The range of standard deviation of residual of magnitude is 0.30−0.36. It could satisfy the requirements of phase consistency. Besides the mean of residual of magnitude of PKPbc phase is greater than 0.03, the rest phases is about 0.01. It demonstrates that the system deviation of the model is so tiny that it could be neglected. The application research of model is carried out by three different cases such as comparison of predicted amplitude, detection of magnitude consistency and magnitude calculation of ultra-teleseism events. The application research demonstrates that these models could be applied to routine seismic monitoring.
Characteristics of surface deformation field of Changning shale gas block in southern Sichuan basin with InSAR data
Bao Yuxin, Sun Jianbao, Li Tao, Liang Cunren, Zhan Yan, Han Jing, Li Yongsheng, Zhang Jingfa
2022, 44(3): 427-451.   doi: 10.11939/jass.20210064
[Abstract](143) [FullText HTML](79) [PDF 14434KB](76)
In recent years, along with large-scale development of shale gas, the seismicity rate has increased dramatically, a series of microseismicity, felt earthquakes and even destructive earthquakes occurred in southern Sichuan basin, a relatively tectonic stable area. Some studies statistically infer whether these earthquakes were induced by industrial activities by using spatio-temporal correlations. This study, on the other hand, uses deformation measurements to analyze whether shale gas exploitation can produce detectable surface deformation, so as to analyze the relationship between deformation and shale gas exploitation, in an attempt to find an effective approach for shale gas exploitation monitoring. Long wavelength ALOS-2 satellite radar data has the potential for minimizing decorrelation effects of radar signals caused by vegetation, heavy water vapor and topographic relief in Sichuan basin. We used ALOS-2 InSAR data to measure surface deformation in Changning shale gas block in the past two or three years, found possible ground deformation caused by massive shale gas production and analyzed its basic characteristics. Meanwhile we also processed time-series of Sentinel-1 satellite radar data to measure the surface deformation during active periods of shale gas exploitation. Considering the errors and different observation geometries of the two datasets, the results from two databases are consistent in revealing the surface deformation. Furthermore, the meaured deformation field is in agreement with the spatial distribution of shale gas wells. Our observations show fast surface uplift during hydrofracture injection, also ground subsidence and horizontal motion in production period with fliud diffusion. We preliminarily reveal the non-steady deformation characteristics during shale gas production. Our study suggests that InSAR is an effective technique for shale gas production monitoring even in southern Sichuan basin where complex deformation occurs, and can provide insights supplementary for seismological observations.
Afterslip distribution of 2017 Iran MW7.3 earthquake and its triggering effects on the 2018 MW6.0 earthquake
Jiang Ziqin, Yang Yinghui, Chen Qiang, Xu Qian, Xu Lang, Huang Xiaomei
2022, 44(3): 452-466.   doi: 10.11939/jass.20200140
[Abstract](263) [FullText HTML](144) [PDF 11422KB](85)
In this study, a set of radar images acquired by the Sentinel-1 satellite that covers the interested seismically-effected area were collected. The time-series surface deformation of the 283-day time span after the 2017 Sarpol Zahab, Iran, MW7.3 earthquake was extracted by using small baseline subset technique, then the two-step procedure inversion is carried out to obtain the afterslip distribution. In order to analyze the triggering effects of the 2017 strong earthquake and its post-seismic faulting on the 2018 Javanrud MW6.0 earthquake, the coseismic deformation field covering the whole MW6.0 earthquake region was obtained by using differential interferometry technique, and the inversion results of seismogenic fault parameters were used as receiving fault parameters for stress calculation. The results show that the post-seismic deformation of the Sarpol Zahab earthquake is mainly dominated by the afterslip effect. 283 days after the earthquake, the accumulative slip of the after-slip model reaches up to 0.7 m. The coseismic source model of the Javanrud MW6.0 earthquake indicates that the seismogenic fault strike is 355.6°, the dip angle is 89.4°, and the rupture of coseismic fault is characterized by the right-lateral strike-slip together with some normal dip-slip component. Moreover, the calculated Coulomb stress change suggests that the MW7.3 earthquake and its afterslip have triggering effect on the subsequent Javanrud MW6.0 earthquake, and the occurrence of Javanrud earthquake could also be contributed by the regional plate activity.
Research on 1-D deep electrical structure in Hawaii
Liang Xuan, Tang Xingong, Yu Junhu, Xiong Bo
2022, 44(3): 467-475.   doi: 10.11939/jass.20210047
[Abstract](73) [FullText HTML](41) [PDF 3693KB](18)
Volcanic activity is closely related to deep magma transportation and material melting state. Long-term dynamic monitoring of volcanoes is helpful to master their deep structure and variation characteristics, and provides important geophysical evidence for predicting volcanic eruptions and volcanic earthquakes. We selecte the observation data from May 2018 to April 2019 for inversion, and the data come from a long-term magnetotelluric observation station set up by Phoenix Company in the Big Island, Hawaii. We obtain the deep electrical structure below the observation point and its time-varying characteristics, and compare the inversion results with the previous exploration results. The research results show that there is an obvious thin low-resistance layer at a depth of 2−3 km below the observation point, and its resistivity is about 20 Ω·m. It is speculated that it may be a magma chamber developed in the shallow part of the Earth’s surface. The range of resistivity at the depth of 100 km is 20−70 Ω·m. It is speculated that there may be an active complex magma reservoir at this depth. The inversion results are comparable with the previous exploration results in neighboring areas.
Optimization of local seismic network layout based on seismic monitoring capability
Qi Guoliang, Yuan Chuan, Yu Miao, Tang Lin
2022, 44(3): 476-488.   doi: 10.11939/jass.20210019
[Abstract](86) [FullText HTML](44) [PDF 5425KB](37)
In order to solve the problem of station location with constraints, the optimization theory of public service facility location is used for reference, and the constituent elements of seismic network monitoring capacity are deeply analyzed, the constraints such as terrain slope, environmental noise level and station layout are also added. Finally, the optimization model of station network layout based on the seismic detection capacity, the recording capacity and the positioning accuracy is established in this paper. Taking the seismic network in Chengdu as an example, the network layout optimization scheme that meets the seismic monitoring capacity requirements of focus and non-focus monitoring areas respectively are obtained by the use of simulated annealing algorithm. And the geographical location of new or newly-built monitoring stations is clearly given.
Spatial distribution characteristics of soil radon in the southern Tangyin graben
Hu Ning, Ma Zhimin, Lou Luling, Wang Yu, Zhang Baoshan, Wang Mingliang, Chen Meng, Guo Deke
2022, 44(3): 489-500.   doi: 10.11939/jass.20200054
[Abstract](13) [FullText HTML](10) [PDF 3847KB](13)
This paper discussed the spatial distribution characteristics of radon in the soil gas and their relationship with faults, geological structures, lithology, and sediment thickness based on the radon concentrations obtained by the field mobile measurement at the gridding layout observation points in the southern Tangyin graben. The measurements showed that the soil radon concentrations in the Tangyin graben varied from 3.09 to 78.54 kBq/m3 with a mean value of 27.22 kBq/m3, and the anomalous threshold was 48.40 kBq/m3. Spatially, the studied area was divided into two parts based on the contour of Quaternary system (50 m thickness), the distribution characteristics of soil gas presented that radon background concentrations were higher in western region than that in eastern evidently because of the difference of lithology units made up the local strata and the influence of human mining activity. Accordingly, the radon concentration anomalies of soil gas in western region were patchily scattered on the periphery of Tangxi fault belt besides of distributed along the fault belt itself. Nevertheless, in eastern region, the most of radon concentration anomalies mainly presented along Tangzhong and Tangdong fault belts. Similarly, the contours map of radon concentrations also indicated the azimuth of concentration anomalous belts were consistent with the strike of Tangzhong and Tangdong faults in east region, which implied the emanation of deep-seated source gas was controlled by fault structures. In addition, the radon concentrations contours map also suggested there was a radon anomalous band of NE strike that was almost parallel to contours of local Quaternary system thickness, by which we speculated there was a buried fault. Furthermore, in this studied area, though the release intensity of soil radon in the western part was significantly higher than that in the middle-eastern part, the radon concentrations anomalous extent showed a trend of increasing from west to east, which revealed that the Tangdong fault was more active than others. The comprehensive analysis indicated that the spatial distribution of soil radon concentrations was mainly controlled by fault structures, lithology formation, thickness of sedimentary layer, and human mining activities, and variations of radon concentrations were mainly dominated by the background tectonic activity of southern Tangyin graben. Our results imply that soil radon is an effective indicator for tectonic activity observation of Tangdong fault. While it is appiled to Tangxi fault which is located in the transition region between the uplift and the subsidence the influence of environmental background needs to be fully considered, because of the impact of bedrock cropping out partially and human mining activities.
Modification of fitting parameters in coherency model for spatial variation of seismic ground motion
Ding Haiping, Zhang Mingzhe
2022, 44(3): 501-511.   doi: 10.11939/jass.20210006
[Abstract](12) [FullText HTML](13) [PDF 2185KB](8)
In this study, the horizontal component of the 5th and the 45th seismic records of the SMART-1 array were selected. Firstly the lagged coherencies of seismic ground motion of station pairs with different separation distances were calculated. Then the influence of station distance on the fitting of parameters of the coherency function model was discussed, that is, there were obvious differences between the fitting results of the coherency function of a certain distance and the coherency functions of all different distances. In order to reduce this deviation, a method of quadratic regression on the fitting parameters of the coherency of different distances was proposed, and the Loh coherency function model was selected for verifying the method. Finally, the correction results of the fitting parameters based on the Loh coherency function model were given. The results show that the correction method proposed in this paper will greatly improve the fitting accuracy of the parameters in the coherence function model.
A method for seismic landslide hazard assessment using simplified Newmark displacement model based on modified strength parameters of rock mass
Chen Shuai, Miao Zelang, Wu Lixin
2022, 44(3): 512-527.   doi: 10.11939/jass.20210008
[Abstract](10) [FullText HTML](13) [PDF 11450KB](7)
Rapid assessment of seismic landslide hazard can provide a scientific basis fordecision-making aimed at post-earthquake emergency response. The Newmark displacement model can quickly assess the seismic landslide hazard after an earthquake without co-seismic landslide inventory. However, as one of the main parameters of the Newmark displacement model, physical and mechanical parameters of the rock mass assigned by traditional methods are too single to reflect the spatial differences of real rock mass strength under complex geological background. To tackle this issue, the distance to the fault, the elevation, and the distance to the river were selected as the evaluation indexes affecting the strength of rock mass, and the evaluation model of rock mass strength was established to obtain the regional rock mass strength modified coefficient, and then the critical acceleration obtained by the traditional method was modified. Combined with the instantaneous peak ground acceleration after an earthquake, the simplified Newmark empirical displacement model was used to calculate the slope cumulative displacement, and the rapid assessment of seismic landslide hazard was conducted. The Wenchuan MW7.9 earthquake was selected as the studied area to validate the performance of the presented method. Results show that the seismic landslide hazard area divided by the presented method is more consistent with the actual co-seismic landslide distribution compared to traditional method. The presented method in this paper can be used for rapid assessment of seismic landslide hazard, which has important reference value for guiding post-earthquake emergency rescue and land planning and also provides a new idea for the subsequent establishment of a basic geological spatial database.
H/V spectral ratio characteristics of hidden fault site based on ambient noise test
Hu Peng, Luo Yonghong, Song Zhibin, Nan Kai
2022, 44(3): 528-537.   doi: 10.11939/jass.20210054
[Abstract](97) [FullText HTML](60) [PDF 3501KB](47)
Ambient noise research has become a hot spot in geological exploration, but the research on ambient noise in alpine and gorge regions of Southwest China is still in its infancy. Based on more than 60 ambient noise tests conducted in the hidden fault crossing area of Anshun field in Shimian county, Sichuan, this paper explores the influence of hidden faults on the H/V spectral ratio characteristics of ambient noise. The results show that after excluding predominant-frequency areas that may be caused by the influence of rivers, the H/V spectral ratio curves are characterized by high frequency, low H/V spectrum ratio, and multi peak frequency on the fault zone. In addition, we estimated the thickness of overburden in this field by analyzing the predominant frequency of this test, and the calculation results of the overburden layer show thickness difference of 5−10 m in some strong weathering areas and high frequency areas of rivers. Moreover some areas with large changes in overburden thickness obtained by ambient noise array inversion are consistent with the trace distribution of the hidden faults. This study attempts to reveal the traces of hidden faults by using the ambient noise method, which provides a new reference basis for the exposure of hidden faults.